YOUTH MIGRATION CONTROL IN CENTRAL ASIA (KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN, UZBEKISTAN, AND TAJIKISTAN)
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Young people make up a significant share of migrants in the modern world. The research featured the problems of migration control regarding the young population of Central Asia. The paper focuses on the causes and effects of this type of migration, as well as the means used by the authorities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to control it. External migration has become a significant problem for both host countries and sending states. Therefore, new effective regulation methods have to be developed. The research objective was to assess the youth migration control in Central Asia, as well as to identify the motives behind this process, including the phenomenon of one-way migration. The problem of migration in the countries of Central Asia proved to be a highly-researched issue. The author used the methods of quantitative and theoretical research, as well as legal methods (formally logical) and sociological methods (statistical data and expert opinions). The work is based on a comparative analysis of regulatory documents in the field of migration and youth policy, as well as the methods and institutions that control migration processes in Central Asia. The article describes the growth rate of migration, the positive and negative consequences of youth migration, and the impact of youth migration on the socio-demographic, economic, and political development of Central Asia, as well as on the human resources in the related countries. This research contributes to the development of a more effective conceptual and doctrinal framework of migration control and youth policy in Central Asia as it helps to identify the shortcomings of the existing legal system.

Keywords:
migration, migration in Central Asia, youth migration, youth policy, study abroad, migrant workers
Text
Publication text (PDF): Read Download
References

1. Sadovskaya E. Iu. International labor migration in Central Asia in the early XXI century. Moscow: Vostochnaia kniga, 2013, 570. (In Russ.)

2. Ivakhniuk I. V. Two migration systems in Europe: development trends and prospects for interaction. Russkii arkhipelag, 2003. Available at: http://www.archipelag.ru/agenda/povestka/povestka-migration/strategii/dve_sistemi/ (accessed 12.01.2020).

3. Sadovskaya E. Iu. Kazakhstan in the Central Asian migration subsystem. Post-Soviet transformations: reflection in migration, eds. Zaionchkovskaia Zh. A., Vitkovskaia G. S. Moscow: Adamant, 2009, 279–321. (In Russ.)

4. Chernykh I. A. The Silk Road economic belt and its impact on migration processes in Central Asia. The Silk Road Economic Belt in the Context of Regional Security: Proc. Round table, Almaty, March 15, 2017. Almaty, 2017, 117–126. (In Russ.)

5. Lewis A. R., Rowland N. R. The movement of the population in the USSR and its influence on society, 1897–1977. Demographic processes in the USS in 1920–1980, ed. Drobizhev V. Z. Moscow: INION, 1991, 18–32. (In Russ.)

6. Sadovskaya E. Iu. International migration to Kazakhstan in the period of sovereign development. Kazakhstan Spektr, 2016, (1): 7–42. (In Russ.)

7. Kusherbaev K. E. Dynamics of the ethnic structure of the population of Kazakhstan. Evraziiskoe soobshchestvo: ekonomika, politika, bezopasnost, 1996, (4): 107–126. (In Russ.)

8. Alekseenko A. N. Ethnodemographic processes and emigration from sovereign Kazakhstan: causes and prospects. Modern ethnopolitical processes and the migration situation in Central Asia: Proc. Conf., Alma-Ata, November 3–4, 1997. Moscow: B. i.; Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1998, 96–112. (In Russ.)

9. Arutiunian Iu. V., Drobizheva L. M., Susokolov A. A. Ethnosociology. Moscow: Aspekt Press, 1999, 270 c.

10. Laitinen A. Kyrgyzstan in the Eurasian Economic Union: challenges and opportunities. University of Tampere, 2018, 69.

11. Vinokurov E., Pereboyev V. Labour migration and human capital in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan: impact of accession to the SES. Eurasian Integration Yearbook. Almaty, 2013, 68–89.

12. Sagynbekova L. International labour migration in the context of the Eurasian Economic Union: issues and challenges of Kyrgyz migrants in Russia. University of Central Asia, 2017, (39): 29. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3023259

13. Kroeger A., Anderson K. H. Remittances and children's capabilities: new evidence from Kyrgyzstan, 2005–2008. Bonn: IZA, 2012, 49.

14. Beishenaly N. E. The consequences of Kyrgyzstan joining the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space for the country's labor market and human capital. St. Petersburg: Evraziiskii Bank Razvitiia, 2013, 117. (In Russ.)

15. Abulkhaev R. A. Problems of refugees and internally displaced persons in Tajikistan in the late XX century. Security in the Central Asian region: experience and practice in resolving ethno-political conflicts. Dushanbe, 2005, 136–147. (In Russ.)

16. Abulkhaev R. A. The solution of the problem of refugees and forced migrants from Tajikistan in 1990s. Vestnik RTSU, 2002, (3): 16–43. (In Russ.)

17. Ryazantsev S. V., Horie N. Modelling of flows of labour migration from the countries of the Central Asia to Russia. Moscow: Nauchnyi mir, 2011, 191. (In Russ.)

18. Babadzhanov R. M. Tajikistan's migration policy and mechanism for its implementation as part of the poverty reduction strategy. Mukhochir, 2007, (3): 8–11. (In Russ.)

19. Guzevatyi Ia. N. Demographic situation and labor use problems in the developing countries of Asia. Moscow, 1990, 392 c.

20. Maksakova L. P. Uzbekistan in the system of international migration. Post-Soviet transformations: reflection in migration, eds. Zaionchkovskaia Zh. A., Vitkovskaia G. S. Moscow: Adamant, 2009, 323–349. (In Russ.)

21. Goncharov V. S., Ivanov S. Iu. Analysis of territorial labor mobility. Moscow: ATISO, 2010, 130. (In Russ.)

22. Maksakova L. P. Export of labor from Uzbekistan. Labor migration in the CIS: social and economic effects, ed. Zaionchkovskaia Zh. A. Moscow: Tsentr izucheniia problem vynuzhden. migratsii v SNG, 2003, 146–158. (In Russ.)

23. Asrorov F. Potential outward labor migration of youth from Uzbekistan. Migration in the mirror of the CIS countries (youth perspective), ed. Molodikova I. Moscow: Tsentr migratsionnykh issledovanii, 2006, 84–91. (In Russ.)

24. Vykhovanets O. D. Migration management: engineering and technology approach. Migration and Development (Valenteev Conference V): Proc. International Conf., Moscow, September 13–15, 2007. Moscow, 2007, 26–46. (In Russ.)

25. Ivakhniouk I. V., Daurov R. D. Irregular migration and security in Russia: threats, challenges, risks. Migration and National Security, ed. Iontsev V. A. Moscow: MAKS-Press, 2003, iss. 11, 30–51. (In Russ.)

26. Ivakhniouk I. V. Eurasian migration system: theory and politics. Moscow: MAKS Press, 2008, 191. (In Russ.)


Login or Create
* Forgot password?